“When you put a laser shot into transparent material, it remembers that there was a laser shot, so when another comes along, the interaction is slightly different.” Rayner performed the experiment with a graduate student, Marina Gertsvolf, and a post-doc, Pattathil Rajeev, as well as colleagues from the University of Ottawa and NRC. The memory identified by the experiment is essential in building nanostructures within the solid. The results are detailed in a letter titled “Memory in Nonlinear Ionization of Transparent Solids” published in Physical Review Letters.Such nonlinear ionization memory is not limited to transparent solids. “It works with viscous transparent liquids as well,” Rayner tells PhysOrg.com. “Even though we focus on glass in this letter, it can be applied to other transparent solids or viscous liquids. The key is to use materials in which the atoms can’t move between laser shots. That way local memory can build up.”The local memory that Rayner refers to is not what we normally think of for data storage. “It’s not like a usual computer memory,” he explains. “In our case the memory mainly affects the absorption of intense laser light.” Rayner speculates that a laser shot creates many pebble-like nanostructures in the material scattered across a focal region. “Then, when you ionize with the next light pulse memory comes into play. The pebble-like nanostructures ionize preferentially and grow.”Rayner says that their experiment provides insight into the self-ordered nanostructures that have been observed in the UK and Japan, as well as in Ottowa. “We wanted to look at the onset of ionization. We looked specifically for the memory that had been postulated to be behind the ordering.” Since the memory is only written with intense light, and mainly affects the adsorption of intense light, a very focused beam of light is needed in order to create the initial pebble-like structure. “The memory builds with time and exposure,” says Rayner. Understanding memory in nonlinear ionization has several applications. One of the main applications that Rayner and his co-authors address in the letter is related to understanding “multishot optical or electrical breakdown phenoma in dielectrics.” But there is more. Rayner points out that information written in glass has security-based applications, such as storing secure information efficiently and in a robust container. Additionally, the nanostructures that ultimately grow as a consequence of the memory can be used for creating templates for laying down metals into lines and wires.“We ended up with an interesting consequence as a result of this research,” explains Rayner. “We are learning to control the fabrication of these nanostructures, and this means that you can do a variety of things with them.” Another use includes using what is learned about nanostructures to create channels for microfluids. “Our work might even help advance microsurgery in transparent soft matter,” Rayner enthuses. “The interaction of intense light with transparent matter is quite topical and quite important.”By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Finding Memory in Nonlinear Ionization (2007, January 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-01-memory-nonlinear-ionization.html David Rayner and his colleagues at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada in Ottawa have shown that when transparent solids, such as glass, are ionized with short intense laser pulses the material is subtly changed. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Different types of UAVs in development. The Raven and Silver Fox have recently been used in Iraq and Afghanistan. Credit: Tariq Samad, et al. (c) 2007 IEEE. Actually, as scientists Tariq Samad, John Bay and Datta Godbole write in Proceedings of the IEEE, UAVs are not all that new, although interest in these small fliers has spiked recently due to current world circumstances. The scientists’ invited paper analyzes current UAV technology and suggests untapped research areas. Also, the group presents a concept of operations for a coordinated fleet of different types of UAVs, which are defined as powered aerial vehicles that use aerodynamic forces for lift, and which can either fly autonomously or be piloted remotely.“A particularly exciting development in UAVs over the last few years has been the emergence of (by now several) small, often portable, relatively low-cost vehicles,” Samad told PhysOrg.com. “These new UAVs, unlike their traditional counterparts, are especially well suited for urban operations and they promise to allow safer, easier, and more comprehensive surveillance and reconnaissance in urban areas.” Current UAVs are quite far from possessing full autonomy; however, a question that scientists debate on is the nature of the coordination system: centralized, decentralized, or a hybrid. Many experts, according to the researchers, believe that decentralized coordination could be more robust due to the lack of a single failure point. Others argue that ground control would be more realistic for military applications, which have a command-and-control basis.“One aspect of UAV technology of particular interest to us is autonomy: how can UAVs successfully operate with minimal human oversight,” Samad said. “Limitations include the fact that obstacle and collision avoidance require the human operator’s engagement. Advances in control algorithms, sensing, and communications are being pursued that should address these and other outstanding challenges. We should remember that our warfighters in the midst of urban operations cannot be expected to devote their attention to low-level aspects of controlling and managing UAVs. Minimizing the associated cognitive and physical workload of urban warfighters through increasingly autonomous UAVs and UAV-based systems is essential for the potential benefits of UAV technology to be realized.”The concept of operations introduced by Samad, Bay and Godbole of an integrated and diverse multi-UAV system uses local control stations that communicate with a single centralized station. While this centralized structure has advantages in coordination, it also faces increased complexity in assigning tasks. In this example, the scientists emphasize the need for a network service architecture that can accommodate both existing and future UAVs.“The current research in this area typically assumes individual UAV capabilities that are well beyond those of today’s craft—the implication is that useful multi-UAV missions are a future, often-distant prospect,” explained Samad. “We believe our concept of operations is unique in that it shows that the benefits of multi-UAV missions—such as coordinated, area-wide reconnaissance and surveillance—can be realized with today’s UAV systems with little or no modifications to the vehicles. (Of course, as UAV capabilities improve additional benefits will be possible.)”Recently, a few types of UAVs have proven effective in Iraq and Afghanistan, providing troops with timely surveillance and reconnaissance. Due to their relatively inexpensive fabrication and testing, along with a variety of applications, UAVs seem poised to play a significant role in the future of war.“Our conops illustrates that coordinated operation of multiple UAVs is feasible with current technology,” said Samad. “We hope that it provides an impetus to research in new multi-UAV system architectures and coordination schemes.”Citation: Samad, Tariq, Bay, John S., and Godbole, Datta. “Network-Centric Systems for Military Operations in Urban Terrain: The Role of UAVs.” Proceedings of the IEEE. Vol. 95, No. 1, January 2007.Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. The major impetus for investing in UAV technology lies in the replacement of the traditional, open battleground with the urban theater of war. Urban environments—with their mazes of tall buildings, parked cars, residences, alleys and tunnels—create a three-dimensional challenge for invading troops unfamiliar with the city. UAVs, however, armed with imaging technology, signals and sensors, could provide surveillance and reconnaissance operations for soldiers. Live video coverage, close-up views, and tracking moving objects are well within the reach of UAVs, based on recent demonstrations.Another role that UAVs could serve might involve filling in the gaps in GPS or cellular infrastructure in the limited line-of-sight regions common in urban areas. A fleet of UAVs equipped with radio or cell technology could sense and follow a unit moving through a city, providing uninterrupted communication service.This intelligence aspect of the UAVs represents an area that the authors suggest has yet to be investigated, but has great potential for advanced applications. For example, truly autonomous UAVs would have to communicate with each other, and therefore possess a certain knowledge of their surroundings and reasoning to make decisions. Samad, Bay and Godbole describe the complexity of UAV intercommunication, and the complexities of mutual and reciprocal knowledge, beliefs and actions. Citation: Future of war demands futuristic flying machines (2007, April 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-04-future-war-demands-futuristic-machines.html While no one can predict where, when or why countries will fight future wars, experts are already creating war technology that may play a deciding factor in the outcome. Perhaps it’s a bit bold to say scientists can write history before it occurs, but only future historians can decide that. In any case, scientists, militarists, and governments are currently investing large amounts of resources in an intriguing, futuristic technology—fleets of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
Aerial photo of the San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain, northwest of Los Angeles. Credit: Wikipedia. © 2014 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Recognizing Foreshocks from the 1 April 2014 Chile Earthquake, Science 16 May 2014: Vol. 344 no. 6185 pp. 700-702. DOI: 10.1126/science.1255202AbstractAre there measurable, distinctive precursors that can warn us in advance of the planet’s largest earthquakes? Foreshocks have long been considered the most promising candidates for predicting earthquakes. At least half of large earthquakes have foreshocks, but these foreshocks are difficult or even impossible to distinguish from non-precursory seismic activity. The foreshocks for the 1 April 2014 Chile event and other recent large earthquakes suggest that observable precursors may exist before large earthquakes. Global map to predict giant earthquakes Explore further (Phys.org) —Seismologists Emily Brodsky and Thorne Lay with the University of California have gone out on a limb of sorts by publicly wondering if it might be possible to predict the largest types of earthquakes by studying foreshock patterns and characteristics. Together they’ve published a Perspective piece in the journal Science, questioning the traditional belief in the earth sciences field that it’s impossible to predict earthquakes of any kind and likely will always be that way. Journal information: Science Citation: Pair of seismologists publicly wonder if it might be possible to predict largest earthquakes (2014, May 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-05-pair-seismologists-publicly-largest-earthquakes.html Earthquakes are impossible to predict, at least for now, because they don’t behave the same way before they occur. Sometimes there are foreshocks, sometimes not, sometimes animals seem to sense something is up, other times they don’t. There are just no discernible patterns that could be used as a sign of an impending quake. But, the research duo suggest, that doesn’t mean there couldn’t be, especially for special types of quakes—those that lie along subduction zones.Brodksy and Lay point out that foreshocks occurred along just such a subduction zone prior to the earthquake that rocked Chile this past April. They note also that a very similar pattern occurred just prior to the massive 9.0 quake that shook Japan three years ago. They acknowledge that similar small quake clusters also occur along fault lines that never result in earthquakes, which of course, is why they haven’t been used to predict earthquakes. It’s for this reason that the two are calling for better monitoring systems. Currently there are few pressure sensors permanently installed along major subduction zones, due to the fact that most are along the ocean floor. They suggest that if pressure sensors were installed and data stored in a database, it might be that clues would reveal themselves. Perhaps, they propose, foreshocks behave in certain ways before a big quake that differ from small quake clusters not related to a bigger event. The only way to find out, they say, is to put in sensors.Governments big and small have been reluctant to install such sensors because of the huge cost involved—adding them along just one coast could cost billions of dollars—an investment that has no certainty of paying off. Thus, it’s doubtful that one paper by a pair of researchers is likely to cause any major changes to the status quo, though it might cause some in the scientific community to begin to question what is possible and what isn’t as it pertains to predicting earthquakes—and that might be all the two authors are really trying to achieve.
Credit: ACS © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Researchers find a way to integrate two two-dimensional materials into a single electronic device (2014, May 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-05-two-dimensional-materials-electronic-device.html Explore further (Phys.org) —Researchers working at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have found a way to integrate two different two-dimensional materials in one single electronic device. In their paper published in the journal Nano Letters, the team describes how they used both graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) to create a single circuit. More information: Graphene/MoS2 Hybrid Technology for Large-Scale Two-Dimensional Electronics, Nano Lett., Article ASAP. DOI: 10.1021/nl404795zAbstractTwo-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the past few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2), and insulating boron nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technology for constructing large-scale electronic systems based on graphene/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterostructures grown by chemical vapor deposition. We have fabricated high-performance devices and circuits based on this heterostructure, where MoS2 is used as the transistor channel and graphene as contact electrodes and circuit interconnects. We provide a systematic comparison of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact to more traditional MoS2-metal junctions, as well as a theoretical investigation, using density functional theory, of the origin of the Schottky barrier height. The tunability of the graphene work function with electrostatic doping significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on this 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Scientists probe the next generation of 2-D materials Two dimensional materials (so named because they are just one atom thick) have created a lot of buzz in the electronics community because of their unique electronic properties. Scientists hope to use them to create smaller, more efficient devices. The two main materials that have captured the attention of the research world are graphene (a sheet of carbon) and MoS2. Both have shown promise, but each has its limitations. To take advantage of what each does well, and to avoid the disadvantages, researchers have looked to joining the two on a single circuit. In this new effort the team at MIT is reporting that they’ve done just that, creating large-scale electronic circuits.Getting the two materials to cooperate was no easy feat. They started by growing samples of MoS2 and graphene using chemical vapor deposition. The MoS2 was then etched to fashion it into channels, followed by a process that caused aluminum oxide (Al2O3) to form on its surface. Graphene sheets were then applied to the channel, cut with oxygen plasma to form gate electrodes and source drains. In the final result, the Al2O3 serves to protect the MoS2 allowing the circuit to run as designed.The researchers believe their fabrication process could be used to allow for integrating many types of two-dimensional materials, allowing for the creation of whole new device types, e.g. lasers, tunneling microscopes and a variety of transistors. An additional plus, they note, is that because the finished products are exceptionally thin, they can be bent to allow for the creation of circuits of virtually any shape. The circuits are also transparent, which means they could likely be used for new types of personal technology devices (skin patches or those that can be sewn into clothes, for example) or as a part of hidden sensors. The team plans to next work on integrating insulating layers onto their tiny circuits, allowing for the creation of even more exotic circuitry. Journal information: Nano Letters
Citation: Color-changing water reflects a rainbow of colors and beyond (2016, September 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-09-color-changing-rainbow.html The uniqueness of the new colloid dispersion comes from its long periodic structure, as mentioned above, which in turn arises because the colloid is highly electrically charged. The titanate nanosheets have a very strong negative charge, so that the 0.75-nm-thick sheets strongly repel each other. Normally, this repulsion is greatly reduced by a cloud of positively charged Q+ ions in the quaternary ammonium that surround the titanate nanosheets. The Q+ ions effectively screen much of the negative electrostatic repulsion between the titanate nanosheets. However, the scientists found that, by removing some of the Q+ ions through centrifuging (the process by which they were originally trying to separate the colloids based on size), the colloidal dispersion turns purple. Without the Q+ ions to screen the repulsion, the titanate nanosheets spread themselves as far apart as possible. As a result, the entire fluid becomes highly structured, with long periodic distances that cause the fluid to reflect long wavelengths of light. In contrast, ordinary water lacks this highly ordered, long-period structure, and so it reflects light with wavelengths that are much shorter than those in the visible range, making it transparent.The researchers demonstrated that the color of the photonic water can be rapidly and reversibly changed by placing the colloidal dispersion in a strong magnetic field, which causes the titanate nanosheets to align perpendicularly to the field. Similarly, heating and cooling the photonic water changes the separation distance between nanosheets, and therefore the color. Even small changes in pH cause the color to change from red (7.9) to green (7.7) to blue (7.3), again due to changing the electrostatic repulsion and therefore the structure and color of the photonic water.In general, photonic materials that reflect light in the near-infrared range have important applications in telecommunications, although they are currently very difficult to fabricate. Photonic water may have potential uses in this area and others. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—Scientists have created a water-based mixture that rapidly changes color when exposed to a variety of stimuli, such as a change in magnetic field, temperature, or pH. The scientists call the mixture “photonic water,” and it can reflect any color of the visible spectrum, as well as parts of the ultraviolet and infrared regions. This color-modulation range is the widest that has ever been reported for any material, either solid or liquid. The researchers, Koki Sano et al., from various institutions in Japan, have published a paper on the photonic water in a recent issue of Nature Communications.”Our photonic water realizes two seemingly contradictory features: fluidity and order,” coauthor Yasuhiro Ishida at the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science in Saitama, Japan, told Phys.org. “This is quite different from the generally conceived notion that photonic materials should be composed of hard materials.”The researchers stumbled upon the unique mixture somewhat by accident when they were attempting to separate certain particles based on size. Although those experiments were unsuccessful, the scientists were surprised to find that, when placing one of the products in water, the water turned a vivid purple color.Investigating further, the scientists found that the colorful mixture displays both fluidity and order, which seems contradictory because fluids are typically very disordered. But the new mixture has the unusual property that it is highly ordered, like a crystal structure. Further, the periodic distance (the distance between repeating units) is extremely large, up to 675 nm. This separation corresponds to a reflection wavelength of 1750 nm (in the infrared region), and when tuned appropriately, the fluid can reflect light across the entire visible spectrum, which consists of wavelengths from approximately 400 to 700 nm. The reflection range also extends down to 370 nm, in the ultraviolet region. This range of 370 to 1750 nm is the widest color-modulation range that has ever been reported for any photonic, or “light-modulating,” material. How does the fluid reflect all of these colors? As its name suggests, photonic water is mostly ordinary water: it is more than 99.5% water by volume. The remaining 0.5% contains the “active ingredients,” which are titanate nanosheets and quaternary ammonium (Q+ ions). When added to water, these ingredients don’t dissolve like salt or sugar, but instead remain intact, like sand in water. The non-dissolving particles are called colloids, and when dispersed in water, they form what’s called a colloid dispersion—but one that is unlike any other colloid dispersion known so far. Play Drops of photonic water exhibit vivid colors that can be tuned across the full visible spectrum and beyond. Credit: K. Sano et al. ©2016 Nature Communications “Considering the stimuli responsiveness and the wide-range color modulability, our photonic water may find various applications as smart optical devices, including optical sensors and displays, near-infrared band filters for telecommunications, variable photonic lasers, etc.,” Ishida said.The researchers expect that the results will have applications beyond fluids, as well. For example, the method they established here for enhancing the electrostatic repulsive forces between titanate nanosheets can be applied to titante nanosheets that they recently developed into soft materials with unique functions due to their internal electrostatic repulsion. Extending even beyond titanate nanosheets, the researchers hope that the surprising discovery of photonic water will “breathe new life into the traditional field of colloidal sciences.” “Not only for titanite nanosheets, but also for other colloidal systems, the enhancement of electrostatic repulsive forces would have a large impact on the physical properties of these materials,” Ishida said. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen More information: Koki Sano et al. “Photonic water dynamically responsive to external stimuli.” Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms12559 (Left) Three optical images and (right) three polarized optical images of photonic water. Credit: K. Sano et al. ©2016 Nature Communications Journal information: Nature Communications Structurally reinforced hydrogel material developed using electrostatic repulsive force between nanosheets Explore further A drop of photonic water, taken from the video. Credit: K. Sano et al. ©2016 Nature Communications © 2016 Phys.org
SEM images of the flagellum of Cassida rubiginosa. (A) Map of the images below, the tip of the flagellum. (B to E) Enlarged images of the flagellum corresponding to the squares in (A). The pink-colored areas in (B) and (C) represent shrunk surfaces. The scale bar in (B) is applicable for (C) to (E). Credit: Matsumura, Kovalev, Gorb, Sci. Adv. 2017;3: eaao5469 Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) image of the Cassida rubiginosa flagellum tip (25 μm). Credit: Matsumura, Kovalev, Gorb, Sci. Adv. 2017;3: eaao5469 Explore further Mating of leaf beetles, its male and female reproductive organs, and new findings on stiffness gradient of the penis found based on a bending test done on a microscope. Credit: Yoko Matsumura, Alexander Kovalev, Stanislav N. Gorb / Matsumura, Kovalev, Gorb The researchers believe it is both the changing flexibility and rubbery tip that allows the flagellum to move inside the female organ without buckling—a characteristic that could prove useful in human products, such as catheters. Catheters, the team notes, are used in urological, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular medical procedures. Each requires a thin tube to be inserted into a small vessel and slide into it to some degree. Modifying the stiffness of the tubes, the team notes, might help prevent buckling. Citation: Study of beetle flagellum offers possible way to improve medical devices (2017, December 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-12-beetle-flagellum-medical-devices.html The small green male thistle tortoise beetle has a flagellum (male sex organ) that is actually longer than its body—the organ is also very thin and curved at the end. The beetle needs such an organ because of the shape of the female reproductive organ, which includes a coiled duct that the male must penetrate. What is most impressive about the flagellum, the researchers note, is that its tip can make the journey from the outside to the inside without the shaft buckling. This suggested that there was more to the story than could be seen with the naked eye.To better understand how the beetle flagellum is able to prevent buckling, the researchers lopped off several of them from beetles they had killed and looked at them under a microscope. They noted first that the tip was curved like a fish hook, which is important when maneuvering through a coil, so long as the curve of the flagellum tip matches the curve of the coil. They also found by bending the flagellum at different points along its shaft that it varied in stiffness—the base was quite stiff, but the shaft grew less stiff toward its opposite end. And the tip, they found, was actually rubbery, allowing for flexibility inside the female organ. It depends on the level of stiffness: Researchers investigate beetle penises More information: Yoko Matsumura et al. Penetration mechanics of a beetle intromittent organ with bending stiffness gradient and a soft tip, Science Advances (2017). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao5469AbstractHyper-elongated structures and their penetration are widespread among insects, for example, intromittent organs, ovipositors, and piercing-sucking mouthparts. The penetration of thin structures with high aspect ratio without buckling and rupturing is mechanically very challenging. However, this problem is economically solved in nature, and the solutions might be helpful for, for example, in the development of harmless catheters. We focus on the penetration process of a hyper-elongated structure of a cassidine beetle intromittent organ, termed a flagellum. We applied a three-point bending test for the flagellum to measure its bending stiffness along the entire flagellum. We demonstrated the bending stiffness gradient, in which the basal half is relatively stiff and the apical half is softer, whose good performance during copulation had been previously numerically demonstrated. The stiffness gradient is the result of the flagellum shape, which is cylindrical and tapered toward the tip. Moreover, the curved tip comprises a harder outer curve and a softer inner curve. Considering the findings of preceding studies, the flagellum works in the following way: (i) the bending stiffness gradient supports the flagellum, easily fitting to a shape of a highly coiled spermathecal duct, (ii) the stiffness property of the very tip may make the tip tougher, and (iii) the curled tip and homogeneously cylindrical shape of the organ help the very tip to fit the shape of the spermathecal duct of the female. Our study shows that the apparently simple flagellum penetration is achieved with numerous elaborate mechanical adaptations. Journal information: Science Advances A trio of researchers at Kiel University in Germany has discovered how the male thistle tortoise beetle manages to penetrate the coiled duct inside the female reproductive organ without buckling his flagellum. In their paper published on the open access site Science Advances, Yoko Matsumura, Alexander Kovalev and Stanislav Gorb describe their study of the flagellum and what they found. © 2017 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
https://ondemand.npr.org/anon.npr-mp3/npr/fa/2019/08/20190822_fa_02.mp3?orgId=42… by NPR News Dave Davies 8.22.19 4:23pm Nearly 2,000 cities, towns and counties across America are currently participating in a massive multidistrict civil lawsuit against the opioid industry for damages related to the abuse of prescription pain medication. The defendants in the suit include drug manufacturers like Mallinckrodt, wholesale distributors McKesson and Cardinal Health, and pharmacy chains CVS and Walgreens.Evidence related to the lawsuit was initially sealed, but The Washington Post and the Charleston Gazette-Mail successfully sued to have it made public. Pulitzer Prize-winning Washington Post journalist Scott Higham says the evidence, which was released in July, includes sworn depositions and internal corporate emails that indicate the drug industry purposely shipped suspiciously large quantities of drugs without regard for how they were being used.Higham says one sales director at the pharmaceutical manufacturer Mallinckrodt was jokingly called “ship, ship, ship” by colleagues because of the amount of oxycodone and hydrocodone he sold: “His bonus structure was tied to the amount of sales that he made,” Higham notes. “And that was a time when there was no secret about how many people were dying in places across the country, and the opioid epidemic was raging.”Higham and his colleagues at the Post were also able to access data from the Drug Enforcement Agency that trace the path of some 76 billion opioid pain pills sold between 2006 and 2012. In analyzing the movement of those pills, they made a gruesome discovery.”When you line up the CDC death [by overdose] database with the DEA’s database on opioid distribution, you see a clear correlation between the saturation of towns and cities and counties and the numbers of deaths,” Higham says. “A lot of these towns and cities, small cities and counties in places like Ohio and Pennsylvania have just been devastated. … The death rates just soared in those places where the pills were being dumped.”Interview HighlightsOn the picture emerging from recently unsealed DEA databaseA lot of people thought they knew that their communities were being saturated by these opioids, but I don’t think they really knew the extent of the saturation, and who was responsible. So this database pulls the curtain back on that for the first time. We obtained data that goes from 2006 through 2012. So over that seven-year period … you can see exactly which manufacturers were responsible, which distributors were responsible, and which pharmacies were responsible. And we took that database and we turned it into a usable, public-facing database, so now anybody in the country can go onto our website and they can see exactly what happened in their communities. …Dozens and dozens of local news organizations have done stories about their own communities — which companies flooded their communities with pills, which pharmacies were responsible for dispensing the most tablets of oxycodone and hydrocodone. Those are the two drugs that we looked at, because they are the most widely abused drugs by addicts and by drug dealers.On the communities that were flooded with opioidsIt’s just heartbreaking to see these once thriving communities. They’re almost like zombielands, where people are just walking around in a daze and picking through garbage cans and falling down, and overdosing in public parks and inside of cars and inside of streets and on street corners. It’s a very upsetting scene that’s happening. …These communities need help — desperately need help. Their hospitals need help. Their foster care agencies need help — because so many parents have perished and their kids have no family or [are] being raised by grandparents. Police departments, paramedics, fire departments that used to fight fires all the time now are fighting against the opioid epidemic and carrying Narcan with them, which is an overdose reversal drug, and “Narcaning” people all day long.On how drug distributors generated billions in revenue from the opioid epidemicThey’re making massive amounts of money. Many of them are Fortune 500 companies. In fact, the No. 1 drug distributor in America, McKesson Corp., is the fifth-largest company in the United States — fifth-largest of all companies in the United States — and it’s a company that most people have never heard of. And they are a huge, huge player in this world, and of the distributors that sent these drugs downstream they were No. 1. And they were followed by two other companies that a lot of folks probably have not heard of. One is called AmerisourceBergen and another is called Cardinal Health. … Together those three companies are the three biggest drug distributors in the United States. And they were followed by Walgreens, CVS and Walmart as the top six drug distributors in the United States.On “pill mills” that popped up in Florida, where people could get opioids from corrupt doctors — and then resell them on the streetAll of a sudden, all these drug dealers realize that there was another way to peddle these pills, and they began to open up these so-called pain management clinics, and most of them were in South Florida, heavily concentrated in Broward County, which is where Fort Lauderdale is. … These things … were basically storefront operations in strip malls where you had corrupt doctors and rogue pharmacists working hand in hand inside of a store. So on one side of the store you’d come in, you’d get a cursory examination, the doctor would write you a script. And you literally go next door and get it filled. And these places just became huge open-air drug markets. The parking lots were filled with people who were driving down from Kentucky and West Virginia and Ohio to pick up their prescriptions. And along the highway that goes up through Florida, I-75 and then also I-95, a lot of these storefronts began putting up billboards along the highway at exit ramps saying, “Pain management clinic, next exit.”On the Justice Department’s history of fining drug companies instead of filing criminal charges[Investigators at the DEA’s Office of Diversion Control] started to see a pattern, and it’s a pattern that they see that continues to this day, that there are people within the Justice Department who are not very aggressive when it comes to these cases. They feel that some of them are a little too close to the industry; that maybe some of the people in the Justice Department want to work for the industry one day, so they don’t go as hard against these companies as perhaps they should. … If you take a look at the revolving door between the Justice Department, the DEA and the drug industry, it’s a very impressive revolving door. You have dozens and dozens of high-ranking officials from the DEA and from the Justice Department who have crossed over to the other side and they’re now working directly for the industry or for law firms representing the industry. So if you’re a DEA investigator or a DEA lawyer or a Justice Department lawyer making $150,000 a year, you cross over and you can triple, quadruple your salary overnight.Amy Salit and Seth Kelley produced and edited the audio of this interview. Bridget Bentz and Deborah Franklin adapted it for the Web.Copyright 2019 Fresh Air. To see more, visit Fresh Air. Tales Of Corporate Painkiller Pushing: ‘The Death… John Moore
Leading NRI industrialist Lord Swraj Paul on Sunday condoled the death of senior journalist and author Vinod Mehta, describing him as an outstanding journalist, a great friend and a very principled man.In a message to the family of Mehta,?founder Editor of ‘Outlook’ magazine, Paul, Chairman of the Caparo Group,?said, “Vinod Mehta was an outstanding Journalist, a great friend and very?principled man. I met him when he interviewed me for Observer in 1984.“He was with me in the Indo-British Round Table which I co-Chaired. He was a very respected person,” Paul said. Mehta, 73, died at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in New Delhi this morning after a prolonged illness.
Bollywood actor Sonam Kapoor says re-teaming with superstar Salman Khan in upcoming film Prem Ratan Dhan Payo has been an amazing experience. Sonam, 30, made her debut in Bollywood with Salman in Saawariya in 2007.“Working with Salman again after a gap of six years after my debut film ‘Saawariya’ has been amazing and great,” she said.The Bollywood fashionista is in Melbourne to attend the fourth Indian Film Festival of Melbourne (IFFM) that opened last week. Also Read – A fresh blend of fameAsked has her life changed after being in the showbiz for eight years, she said, “I think I am the same but obviously I have been working now for so many years and you get a hang of the job.” The Indian beauty was the show stopper for the leading designer Anamika Khanna on the second day of the IFFM which was packed by a fashion show and the awards ceremony.Sonam feels fashion is “to be yourself, be comfortable and not to think what other people think”.“We as Indian girls have a tendency to really dress for other people, it’s a common Indian thing. You make your mother, your mother-in-law, husband or boyfriend happy,” Kapoor said.
Sahitya Akademi is India’s National Academy of Letters and is dedicate to promoting literature in various Indian languages. Under the chairmanship of its President, Prof. Vishwanath Prasad Tiwari, a selection of 24 books for the Yuva Puraskar and 21 writers for the Bal Sahitya Puraskar has been approved. All these selections were made by a jury comprising of three members in the concerned language, according to the rules and procedures. All the awardees will receive an award in the form of a casket with a cheque of Rs. 50,000 in an event to be held on November 14. The Yuva Puraskar relates to books published by authors aged 35 years or below on January 1 of the year. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The Bal Sahitya Award, for the first ten years had been given to an authors who have contribution to children’s literature. Books which are either translated or compiled are not eligible for the award. ‘Aparanha Downtown’ by Raka Das Gupta (Bengali), ‘Dark Horse- Ek Ankahi Dasta’ by Nilotpal Mrinal (Hindi), ‘Sulus’ by Anwesha Arun Singbal (Konkani), ‘Farthest Field- An Indian story of the Second World War’ by Raghu Karnad (English) are a few of the Yuva award winners. The list of awardees of the Bal Sahitya Award includes ‘His Share of Sky’ by Rashmi Narzary (English), ‘Mataki Mataka Matkaina’ by Late Droan Vir Kohli.
SpiceJet, the country’s favourite low-cost carrier, unveiled its first brand store for its newly launched e-commerce retail venture – ‘SpiceStyle’ at Galleria, Gurgaon. Besides offering its customers the opportunity to ‘look and feel’, the store will function as a premium channel to offer the latest in fashion and lifestyle across 12 different brands including a signature Rohit Bal collection.With ‘SpiceStyle’, the airline aims to further boost its ancillary revenue income which has witnessed a phenomenal growth from 6% to around 17% in the last two years. The launch of its first physical store marks SpiceStyle’s entry into the offline segment besides its e-commerce portal and a brand store launched in association with Amazon. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAjay Singh, CMD, SpiceJet, said, “SpiceStyle, is an exciting new business venture by SpiceJet, which will help further enhance our ancillary revenues. I am delighted to unveil SpiceStyle’s retail store which complements our e-commerce portal and brand stores on Amazon and other e-commerce platforms. ‘SpiceStyle’ promises to provide customers with the same brand experience as the parent airline enabling them to travel in comfort and style.” The airline is all set to woo its customers with some very exciting offers attached to the venture. Under the Rohit Bal series, one can buy products worth Rs 25000 and above and get a return ticket for one person to Goa absolutely free. Whereas in case of a purchase worth Rs 40000 and above one can get a return ticket for two persons. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive’SpiceStyle’ has also rolled out inaugural offers on other brands conferring discounts up to 25% on Caprio (sunglasses), Lesk (Jewellery), Forst (Accessories), Vajero (Bags & trolleys), Inscripto (Stationery) and Modello (Collectables) among others. As a part of the inaugural offer, the airline is also offering customers, a return ticket to Bangkok.Initially conceived as an in-flight only service, ‘SpiceStyle’, which is a wholly-owned subsidiary of SpiceJet, now exists in the form of an e-commerce portal (www.spicestyle.com). In a new initiative, ‘SpiceStyle’ recently joined hands with the global e-commerce giant, Amazon.in and launched an all new brand store. In what could arguably turn out to be one of the most exciting retail ventures to hit the Indian markets in recent times, SpiceJet’s new entity, ‘SpiceStyle’, promises to change the way people will shop for quality products at competitive prices.Sourced with intensive research and meticulous techniques, the brands offer a calibrated mix of value and mid segment pricing. The airline’s shopping endeavour offers a huge assortment of products ranging from sunglasses, wrist watches, backpacks, silicone luggage tags among others. The new venture also offers an exclusive brand line – Rohit Bal series.
Kolkata: Eminent author from Guatemala Professor Euda Morales said on Friday freedom is very important for the people of her country as they cherish the right to think and express freely. Guatemala is the theme country in this edition of the Kolkata International Book Fair. “Guatemala is more like your country. We cherish the right to free thinking, the right to talk freely without fear and criticise when we think in that way,” she said drawing parallels with India. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedMorales was talking to reporters after addressing the ‘Ashok Kumar Sarkar Memorial Lecture’ at the book fair. Morales said though book fairs and book exhibitions took place in her country, the number of books and visitors are far less in quantity. “I can see this is so big for me… enormous and large a book fair. I can see people in India read a lot, otherwise not so many books would be available. I appreciate that very much,” she said. “(In Guatemala) we have many people who are very intellectual and of course we participate in many activities like this (book fair and literary meets), but the main difference between Guatemala and India is that not so many people read story books in her country where books are a lot more expensive,” she said. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseAsked about popularity of Indian films in her country, she said: “I can say so far I know – I think we don’t have so many Indian films. Even if they (distributors) show that will be few.” The Indian foods are lot more spicy. “You use a whole range of spices in your preparations, which we don’t,” she said. On the Guatemala pavilion in the book fair, she said: “It shows our heritage, our roots belong to the Mayas. We come from the Mayas. Anyone who is from Guatemala will have to be proud that so many people will be able to read and learn about our heritage.”
After the colossal success of the first two editions, the third edition of ‘Russian Film Days’, a world-class film festival that showcases the best of contemporary and classical Russian cinema is back in India. The event is going to be held in Delhi from November 10 –12, travelling to Mumbai from November 13 to 15, and thereby concluding at IFFI Goa from November 21 to 28. The festival will screen movies across genres like comedy, thriller, drama, Sci-Fi, etc. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe opening ceremony of ‘The Russian Film Days’ in India will begin with a theatrical performance dedicated to Raj Kapoor and the legendary film of 1970, Mera Naam Joker. The special guest for the opening ceremony will be veteran actor Randhir Kapoor and beautiful Russian actor Kseniya Ryabinkina, who played a protagonist in Mera Naam Joker. Also, Vladimir Medinsky, Minister of Culture of the Russian Federation, Nikolai Kudashev, Russian Ambassador to India and leading representatives of Russian and Indian cinema will mark their presence at the event. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveBeing organised by the production company Cinemarus, in cooperation with Russkoe Kino Company, the festival aims to strengthen the cultural relations between the two countries.On November 10, The Bolshoi will be screened at the Siri Fort auditorium at 6 pm. And on the second and third day of the festival, Delhiites can see movies like The Ghost of Sonora – the directorial debut of composer Alexey Rybnikov, Yana+Yanko, Kitchen Final Battle, and fantasy blockbuster Attraction, at DT Cinemas in Saket. The movie marathon will continue in Mumbai, the capital of Bollywood, where people will also get to see the animated film Fantastic journey to Oz, the cosmic drama Spacewalkers and the Historical drama Anna Karenina. Vronsiy’s story.The next point of screening of the modern Russian movie will be Panaji, wherein the framework of the 48th International Film Festival of India (IFFI) in the non-competitive program will present films like Light up, Hostages and Closeness. In addition to screenings there will be meetings of actors and directors with the audience.The entry to all screenings will be free of charge and at a first-come-first-seat basis.
Standing on the small grassy plot next to the gallery walls at the Jawahar Kala Kendra, Jaipur, viewers could gaze at the surreal designs made by sunlight on Rakhee Kane’s ceramic wall with metal, and rammed earth wall in raw multi coloured clay. Pondicherry dweller Kane creates a seamless 3 dimensional double panel with large circular holes that act as a sieve to filter the sun’s rays that seem to flirt with the apertures.Repetition of patterns Also Read – Add new books to your shelfOn the two panels it is the design dictates with repetition of patterns that points to a sequence of surreal juxtapositions under the natural skylight. The beauty of the concept is the hallmark that panels that can be integrated together in many different ways to create totally unique sculpted walls and that is what makes this installation a stand alone creation. The flat and formulated designs make it possible to create a seamless sculptural wall where the designs flow and change across the surface just as in nature according to the inclination of the sun. As a consequence, the two panels are not identical, they offer myriad options in the unveiling of mass and materials. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveTribute to the Jali “This installation is a tribute to several of these elements of the Jali form, through a series of three dimensional studies in the medium of fired and unfired clay, through various processes of high temperature firing and glazes,” says Kane. “It is an exploration to celebrate versatility of a form that is synonymous with interconnectedness, unity and transparency. Its quality of enclosure while being connected with the other side, its play with light, form and ability to evoke one’s emotions and associations with the past to bring in elements of nature within a dwelling. It is essentially a play of aesthetics created by filtering and bouncing of light, created by exploring Jali form along with a Rammed Earth Wall, around which the installation is created.” Rakhee says in the context of this venue, (designed by Charles Correa) which itself is a monumental work of architecture that celebrates the spirit of the land and the play of light, this installation is a reflection of how traditional architecture and elements can inspire contemporary expressions in architecture and art. Magic of materials Rakhee is a magician with materials, she is concerned with the making of ceramic ware and the nature of materials she uses while having a strong affinity towards the manifestations of firing and glazing. In her two panels and single wall we can discern an enthusiasm for the symbolic manifestations that are inherent within materials and how a ceramic sculpture can actually aid in all types of the aesthetic communication. After having created stunning platters, landscapes as well as tower like totems, Rakhee’s veering into the expanded terrain known as “installations”reveals that she has a distinctlyaesthetic approach which includes the traditional techniques of modelling, coaxing and casting her mosaic of panels even as she weaves in radical forms of assemblage. Astonishing vocabulary Throughout her creation of the three wall panels run the threads of coherent contexts as well as an astonishing vocabularyof formal attributes in design. So we as viewers, are offered possibilities when encountering her creation: in these two panels – there is history, concrete manifestations of the real and ephemeral expressions of evocation, and the drama of silhouettes. Then within the building of organic substance we discern a passion for ingredients and firing processes with oxidation origins. Kane fires at 1300 degrees centigrade in a wood kiln and used Shino glaze for this stupendous installation. As the refractive index of sunlight splits into levels that create different perceptions of depth, there is a creation of rhythms on the walls with a pleasant natural effect. Fruit of the sophisticated “tile repetition ” technique there is a graphic density to the wall panels, and a deepened understanding of cubism and tactile and powerful material rendering. The metal and the ceramic walls are constructed from a series of pre-cast panels that are bonded to the substrate. The panel joints are then filled and sanded and the absence of decoration creates an aura of traditional hand sculpted designs that fit together with total accuracy yet retain the essence of being hand crafted. At the Jawahar Kala Kendra Shifting Identities as an installation is a lesson in the natural finish of form because excessive decoration eclipses materials and takes away from the edifice of design and sculptural formalism.
Kolkata: The homicide section of Kolkata Police’s Detective Department took over investigation of the Netajinagar elderly couple murder case on Thursday. Several angles have cropped up in the case, but police are still not sure about the motive behind the murders.According to sources, during probe mystery arose over the key of a cupboard which was found intact after the murder. After breaking it open, police found several documents related to bank accounts and fixed deposits. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataInvestigators suspect that as the elderly couple was issueless, they might have had prepared a will which is yet to be traced. It was also found that the murderers had taken away the mobile phone of Dilip Mukherjee, but did not take the mobile phone of his wife Swapna. The murderers had, however, removed the SIM card from her mobile phone. Police are checking the call list of the deceased couple in order to identify those who were in touch with them. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateThough police have already interrogated several persons including a mason who used to reside at the said house on rent, nothing suspicious could be found till Thursday night. However, the investigators are sure that the murderers were known to the Mukherjee family and were close to the elderly couple. On the other hand, police are still in the dark about the motive of the Narendrapur double murder. On Thursday, police questioned the family members of one of the owners of the land and house where the couple, identified as Pradip Biswas and Alpana Biswas, was found murdered. Investigators came to know about a deal which was expected to happen soon over selling the land. It was also found that there might have been some resistance as large traces of blood was found inside the house. After examining the injuries, it was found that it could not have been possible to spread that much blood from the wounds of the deceased persons.
The Salem Witch trials are remembered as one of the most chaotic times in Early Colonial American history. During the trials, much of the northeastern part of the American Colonies was whipped into a frenzy of fear and paranoia.Based on the Puritan ideals of the time, there were suspicions of witchcraft and devil worship, both of which are offenses punishable by death under Puritan practices.“Trial of George Jacobs of Salem for Witchcraft.”The fuel for the firestorm of accusations and arrests rests, in large part, on Tituba, a South American slave woman owned by Samuel Parris.Much is unknown of Tituba’s early life, but historians generally agree that she was a child of the Arawak tribe in South America. She was captured by slavers and sold to Samuel Parris in Barbados before being taken to Boston in 1680. Her part in the subsequent witch trials is pivotal, as she was one of the first persons to be accused of witchcraft and her testimony provided the basis for everything which came after.Tituba the WitchIn 1689, Samuel Parris became the Minister of Salem and moved his family there. Tituba moved with them and spent her time taking care of Samuel Parris’s children. She was close with Parris’ 9-year-old daughter Betty.Early in 1692, Betty Parris and her cousin Abigail Williams started experiencing fits and pain. With no medical explanations as to why this was happening, the doctors of Salem claimed that the girls must have been hexed by witches.Samuel ParrisThe two girls accused Tituba and two other women, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborn, of being the witches because they saw the women in their minds while having hallucinations. This was accepted in the courts of the time as spectral evidence, which was considered solid proof for witchcraft.During interrogations, both Sarah Good and Sarah Osborn vehemently denied the charges made against them, but they were not prepared for what was to come.Tituba took center stage, and she began to give colorful testimony in which she claimed that the devil had come to hurt the children. Not only that, but the devil had accomplices in the two women who also stood accused.This 19th-century representation of “Tituba and the Children” by Alfred Fredericks, originally appeared in A Popular History of the United States, Vol. 2, by William Cullen Bryant (1878).In an article on History of Massachusetts Blog, there is a report of testimony which quotes Tituba as saying, “Goody Osburn and Sarah Good and I doe not know who the other were Sarah Good and Osburne would have me hurt the children but I would not she further saith there was a tale man of Boston that she did see.” Even though she didn’t have an education, she was able to put enough emotion into the testimony to sway the people of Salem.This testimony sowed the seeds for suspicion and quickly her story expanded. She went from having two conspirators to four conspirators to nine, all the way up to almost five hundred. Every time she was interrogated, her story evolved, making herself ever more valuable to the courts.Tituba and Mary Walcott, illustration by John W. Ehninger.Her testimony held various descriptions of abnormal creatures that stood at the side of the devil; most interestingly she described a harpy, a being with wings, two legs, and the head of a woman, though she didn’t know the name of the creature.During the testimony, she also talked about a book which was filled with the names of people who had made pacts with the devil, and, according to “Unraveling the Many Mysteries of Tituba” on Smithsonian.com, “while there were many marks in the book, she could not decipher names other than those of the two women already under arrest.”Tituba Teaching the First Act of Witchcraft.Because of this vagueness, she could expand her story to encompass anyone she needed to, and, by the end of the trials, 19 men and women had been hanged for witchcraft, and almost a hundred and fifty more were imprisoned.Tituba was placed in prison, and while she was there, many people came forward to confess their sins. Many among them used pieces of her intricate testimony to add credibility to their own.In the end, Tituba attempted to take her confession back and said the reason she gave such testimony is because her master, Samuel Parris, had beaten her and told her to give false testimony.Read another story from us: Two Canadian Women were Arrested for Witchcraft FraudWhen she was put on trial for dealing with the devil, the jury decided not to convict her, and her prison fines were paid by an unknown benefactor, with whom she presumably left Boston. Nothing more is known of her life afterward, but her part in history continues to be fodder for creative minds.
Almost everyone has heard the quote, “Money is the root of all evil.” Will Rogers said, “Too many people spend money they earned … to buy things they don’t want … to impress people that they don’t like.” No matter what your opinion is about money, it is necessary for living in today’s world. Wars have been fought, people killed, families divided, and friends have been separated over money. Sometimes people that have it think money makes them a better person than one who has worked hard his entire life just to get by. Greed for money is at epidemic proportions.Originally people in the early colonies used the British pound, but just as many used barter. Deer skins were often used as money as well as other animal skins. Using deer skins led to the phrase “a couple of bucks.” Soon the newly created United States began printing money.Two dollars, November 1862The first US paper money was a two dollar note issued in 1776. In 1861, during the Civil War, the U.S. Department of Treasury issued green colored Demand Notes nicknamed “greenbacks”. In 1862, United States notes issued with serial numbers and a Treasury Department seal came about.With engraved pictures and other decoration, they set the stage for the currency design we use today. During the Civil War, the Confederacy issued their own money which quickly became worthless at the end of the war.This $50 Continental Currency note (from 1778) was designed by Francis Hopkinson. The unfinished pyramid design was a precursor to the reverse side of the Great Seal of the United States.Some of it still remains, and, as the years go by, the existing notes get more and more valuable, especially if the pictures include important Confederates or slaves and cotton. An 1864 Confederate note with a picture of General Stonewall Jackson with a face value of $500 can be had for between $200 to thousands, depending on its condition.According to U.S. Currency Education Program, all U.S. currency issued since 1861 is still redeemable for face value, although one could probably get more money from selling it as a collectible.A $1,000 Legal Tender Note from the Series 1862-1863 greenback issue. Engraved signatures of Chittenden (Register of the Treasury) and Spinner (Treasurer of the United States).After the war, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was established to centralize the issuance of money. In 1889, Congress legislated names below the portraits that are found on all money. The cost of issuing bank notes kept rising, so by 1929 the notes were made about 30 percent smaller and the designs were standardized to make it easier to find counterfeits.At that time, extremely large banknotes were issued in denominations of $10,000 with a portrait of Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury during Abraham Lincoln’s presidency, a $500 bill featuring President Grover Cleveland, a $5,000 note with President James Madison, and the highest value ever created for U.S. currency – a series 1934 $100,000 gold certificate with President Woodrow Wilson on the front.$5,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1928, (Serial #1) depicting James Madison, with signatures of Woods (Treasurer of the United States), and Mellon (Secretary of the Treasury)Most of these high-value bills were used only for transactions between banks and the government. There were very few of these issued, and, in 1969, the Treasury stopped making them. Although the government will still accept them as a form of legal tender, they are being sold for as much as $140,000 by collectors. If a larger denomination bill is still in circulation, it is pulled and destroyed by the Treasury.In 1955, the government made it mandatory to include “In God We Trust” on all money beginning with the 1957 $1 silver certificate, and, in 1963, it was added to all notes. From 1914 to 1933, one could take paper money and exchange it for an equal value of gold or silver. After 1933, one could only trade for silver.$10,000Before 1965, all dimes and quarters were made from silver, but President Lyndon Johnson called for the coins to be made with 40 percent less silver creating the “sandwich” coins of today which show the addition of another base metal. By 1968, money could no longer be traded in for any precious metal. In 1996, U.S. currency was re-designed with larger portraits and more security features.Coins come and go depending on their popularity. A silver dollar with the face of President Dwight D. Eisenhower was used in the 1970s as well as a half dollar coin with the face of President John. F. Kennedy.$100,000 Gold Certificate, Series 1934, (Serial #1) depicting Woodrow Wilson, with signatures of Julian (Treasurer of the United States), and Morgenthau (Secretary of the Treasury).Both coins were large and heavy and were not popular with the public. The Susan B. Anthony $1 coin, issued in 1979, was not well received because it was often mistaken for a quarter. The Sacagawea golden dollar, while still in circulation, is also not very popular with some who remark that it looks like play money.Read another story from us: Extremely Rare Penny Found in Boy’s Lunch Money Now Worth a FortuneU.S. currency will continue to change as counterfeiters are able to reproduce better and better fake bills. Whatever your preference, paper money or coins, money is, and will probably always be, necessary in today’s world.
Every Tuesday during the NFL season, Colin puts out his Herd Hierarchy NFL power rankings, and there are some big shifts after Week 7.This week, the Bills and Texans move back into the Top 10; the Chiefs continue to drop; and the Broncos, Vikings, and Panthers drop out.Here are his Top 10 teams after Week 7:10. Buffalo Bills – Buffalo squeaks in at 10 because even though Colin thinks Tyrod Taylor has limitations, they run the ball down opponents’ throats with LeSean McCoy, who just had his first multiple touchdown game of the season. For the second straight week, the @Eagles are No. 1 in @ColinCowherd‘s #HerdHierarchy pic.twitter.com/tC5BRvkVil— Herd w/Colin Cowherd (@TheHerd) October 24, 2017 8. Houston Texans – The Texans have taken off since Deshaun Watson took over, and this week they get All-Pro LT Duane Brown from a holdout. Since Will Fuller returned in Week 4, Deshaun Watson has a Passer Rating of 118.3, 12 TD, and only 2 Interceptions. Fuller has 5 receiving touchdowns since returning to the lineup.Even though Colin has them ranked 8th, he thinks they have a legitimate shot to contend for the AFC if they keep improving. Houston keeps getting stronger. Advertisement 7. Pittsburgh Steelers – Colin was critical of the Steelers early, but they’ve come on since getting embarrassed by the Jags. They’re the only team in NFL outgaining their opponents by 100 yards per game, and have smartly started to pound LeVeon Bell in the run game.They also allow the fewest yards per play in the NFL (4.44), and haven’t allowed more than 313 yards in a game. Pittsburgh is rounding into form. 6. Dallas Cowboys – The Cowboys are averaging 33.7 PPG, 449.7 YPG, while converting 56.8% of their 3rd Downs over their last 3 games, and are one of only 2 teams ranked in the Top 5 in 3rd Down and Red Zone offense.The biggest surprise is their pass rush. They’re the only team in NFL averaging 14 QB Pressures per game. Dallas looks like they’re finally starting to hit on all cylinders after a slow start. 9. Kansas City Chiefs – The Chiefs keep dropping after coming back to Earth from a hot start. Offense isn’t the problem. Alex Smith leads the NFL in Passer Rating (120.5) and Kareem Hunt leads the NFL in Total Yards Per Game (143.1). As a team, they lead the NFL in Yards Per Play (6.48) and Points Per Drive (2.66), but their defense has been exposed by allowing over 470 Yards Per Game in back-to-back losses.Colin loves Andy Reid, but the Chiefs need to figure out how to stop people. 2. Seattle Seahawks – Seattle has the NFL’s best Scoring Defense (15.7) & Red Zone Defense (28.6%), and Russell Wilson is completing 70.6% of his passes at 8.11 Yards Per Pass with a 102.0 Passer Rating during the Seahawks 3-game win streak. Seattle is also 1 of only 2 teams allowing an average Passer Rating below 70. Seattle is always dominant defensively and starting to look better offensively. 3. New England Patriots – Belichick has improved a defense which was atrocious to start the year. In the last three weeks, they’re giving up 12.7 PPG, 94.7 Rushing Yards Per Game, 38.5 3rd Down Percentage, and 36.4 Red Zone Percentage. All drastic improvements from the first 4 weeks of the season.Tom Brady is the only QB that’s thrown for 2,000 yards, and New England is the only team with 5 different players with 25+ receptions. New England always gets better in the second half of the season. 5. New Orleans Saints – New Orleans has traditionally had an awful defense, but they’re only allowing 4.66 yards per play over their last 4 games, and have only allowed 6 drives to reach the Red Zone in that stretch. Even though Drew Brees has thrown 2 Interceptions in each of his last 2 games, there’s no reason to think he won’t snap that slump.If the Saints D can continue shutting down opponents, they’ll continue to hang around the Hierarchy. Philadelphia Eagles –The Eagles grab the top spot for the second week in a row as Carson Wentz continues his rapid rise to superstardom. Wentz’s 133.1 Passer Rating on 3rd Down leads the NFL, and in addition to Philly ranking 2nd in the NFL in Time of Possession, they’ve also scored 27 points in the final 2 minutes of the 2nd Half (most in NFL). The loss of tackle Jason Peters is significant, and hurts going forward, but Philly is the best NFL team, right now. The Buffalo D has only allowed 5 touchdown passes on the year (2nd fewest in the NFL) and Colin likes their pass rush. They also lead the NFL in Turnover Differential (+10). The Bills aren’t built for shootouts, but they’re run game and D is what gets them in the Top 10. 4. Los Angeles Rams – They’re the only team in NFL averaging 30 ppg, and Todd Gurley has rushed for 100 yards 4 times – the Rams are 4-0 in those games, and 5-0 when they run the ball more than 22 times. The Ram defense is 2nd in the NFC with 23 Sacks.Jared Goff has struggled over his last 4 – 53.9% Completion Percentage, 6.40 Yards Per Pass, 4 TD, 3 INT, 74.2 Passer Rating. That’s a concern, but Colin is still a believer in the Rams.
Isaiah Thomas has been shipped all over the NBA this past year. First, he was traded out of Boston for Kyrie, then he was traded from Cleveland to L.A. as part of Cleveland’s trade deadline roster detonation. Last night, on Jimmy Kimmel Live, the younger Isaiah Thomas took on NBA legend Isiah Thomas in a mini game show called ‘Generation Gap,’ and got off a one-liner at the expense of his former Cleveland team.The game didn’t go so well for Isaiah II, and near the end when it looked like he wouldn’t answer any of the questions correctly, he joked, “I’m like the Cavs, I’m gonna get swept.”It was a pretty funny line. The only thing that would have been funnier is if he followed up with the joke about wanting a max contract. Oh, wait. He was serious about that.Never change Tiny Cancer.
Sixers Markelle Fultz pick could the worst in a decadeOn the tail of former Bryan Colangelo resigning as GM of the Sixers following a bizarre Twitter burner account scandal, a report has leaked out that Colangelo overruled other Philly execs in order to draft Markelle Fultz with the first overall pick in last year’s NBA Draft.Beyond just being a flop on the court, the Fultz pick could also indirectly cost Philly a chance to land LeBron James. Colin thinks if Philly had drafted Tatum, who looks like future star in Boston, the roster would be impossible for James to pass up, and would be set up to dominate the East and contend for titles. Instead they have Markelle Fultz and are on the outside looking in for LeBron. Magic undersstands “diss track” feuds are bad for the LeBron businessColin was critical of the ongoing “diss track” feud between Laker teammates Lonzo Ball and Kyle Kuzma, and thought the perception of immaturity could be a turn off in L.A.’s effort to land LeBron James. While many on social media said Colin was overreacting by connecting the dots, it appears Magic Johnson agrees with him.Reports say that Kuzma and Ball have been told by the organization to squash their diss track feud while the Lakers pursue James. Colin thinks it’s a smart move by Magic who is attempting to sell LeBron that the Lakers as a first class organization, not a romper room full of immature teammates he has to babysit. Also:– Chris Paul isn’t worth a max contractGuests:Chris Broussard – FS1 NBA Insider is in-studio on Magic addressing the diss track battle; and if any team can challenge the Lakers to land him.Bucky Brooks – NFL Network Analyst is in-studio to discuss Baker Mayfield being named the back up behind Tyrod Taylor in Cleveland.Jason McIntyre – Founder of The Big Lead is in-studio talking LeBron rumors, and Lakers diss tracks.Landon Donovan – Former USMNT star talks World Cup; and if the U.S. will be able to seriously contend as the host of the 2026 cup.